Q: What is the Du`a' (supplication) that I can recite in order to be answered? Is it permissible to supplicate for marriage and such things while performing Sujud (Prostration) in an obligatory Salah (Prayer)? What are the best times in which a Muslim is encouraged to recite Du`a'?
A: Allah (Exalted be He) as prescribed Du`a' for His Servants. He (Glorified and Exalted be He) says: And your Lord said: ?Invoke Me, I will respond to your (invocation). He (Glorified and Exalted be He) also states: And when My slaves ask you (O Muhammad ??? ???? ???? ????) concerning Me, then (answer them), I am indeed near (to them by My Knowledge). I respond to the invocations of the supplicant when he calls on Me (without any mediator or intercessor).
Sujud is the suitable position for Du`a', whether in an obligatory or supererogatory Salah. The preferable times for reciting Du`a' are:
1. The last portion of the night.
2. The middle of the night.
3. During Sujud, whether in obligatory or supererogatory Salah.
4. At the end of Salah, after Tashahhud (a recitation in the sitting position in the last unit of Prayer) and before Taslim (salutation of peace ending the Prayer).
5. On Friday when the Khatib (preacher) sits on the Minbar (pulpit) until the end of the Jumu`ah (Friday) Prayer.
6. After the `Asr (Afternoon) Prayer until sunset on Friday. Whoever wishes to supplicate to Allah should seek these times.
7. The interval between Adhan (call to Prayer) and Iqamah (call to start the Prayer) is also a time when Du`a' is answered. The most important of these times is the end of the night, according to the statement of the Prophet (peace be upon him): Our Lord descends every night to the lower heavens when the last third portion of the night begins. He announces: Is there any supplicant that I may might? Is there any seeker of My Favor that I might give to him? Is there any seeker for forgiveness that I might forgive him? He says in another wording: Is there any invocator to answer his invocation? Is there and asker to give him what he asks for? Is there any repentant to accept his repentance? This continues until the dawn appears.
This is a great time which a believer should take advantage through Tahajjud (optional late night Prayer), recite Du`a' and Istighfar (seeking forgiveness from Allah). This Divine Descent is befitting of Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He), unlike the descent of His Creatures. He (Glorified be He) descends in a way that befits His Majesty, whose method is known only by Him (Glorified and Exalted be He). He does not resemble any of His Creatures in any of His Attributes, such as Istiwa' (Allah's Rising over the Throne in a manner that befits Him), Mercy, Anger, Content, and such traits, according to Allah's (Exalted be He) Saying: There is nothing like Him; and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer. (Surah Al-Shura: 11). He (Exalted be He) also says: The Most Gracious (All?h) rose over (Istaw?) the (Mighty) Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty). (Surah Taha: 5). Definition of 'Istiwa' in a manner that suits His Almighty Majesty it means rising over the `Arsh (Allah?s Throne), but in a way that befits Allah and does not resemble any of His Creatures, and whose method is known by Allah only, according to His (Exalted be He) Saying: There is nothing like Him; and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer. (Surah Shura: 11). Um Salamah (may Allah be pleased with her) said: Istiwa' is known; its method is beyond understanding; admitting it is part of Iman (faith); and denying it is a form of Kufr (disbelief). Rabi`ah ibn Abu `Abdul-Rahman, the Shaykh of Imam Malik who was one of the Tabi`un (Followers, the generation after the Companions of the Prophet), was asked about this, he said, "Istiwa' is known; its method is beyond understanding; Allah has sent the Message; the Messenger conveyed it to us; and we must believe it." When Imam Malik (may Allah be merciful to him), the Imam of Madinah in the second century, was asked about Istiwa', he said: "Istiwa' is known; its method is unknown; believing in it is Wajib (obligatory); and inquiring about it is a Bid`ah (innovation in Islam)." He then told the person who asked: "I can see that you are an evil man." He ordered to have him thrown out. The saying of Imam Malik, Um Salamah and Rabi`ah (may Allah be pleased with them) is the opinion of all Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah (adherents to the Sunnah and the Muslim mainstream); they say that Allah's Names and Attributes should be ascribed to Allah in a way that befits Him (Glorified and Exalted be He). Believing in them is obligatory, while its perception is known by Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) alone. That is why Allah (Glorified be He) says: "And there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him." (Surah Al-Ikhlas: 4). He (Glorified be He) also says: There is nothing like Him; and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer. (Surah Al-Shura: 11) and So put not forward similitudes for All?h (as there is nothing similar to Him, nor He resembles anything). Truly! All?h knows and you know not. (Surah Al-Nahl: 74). He (Glorified be He) becomes angry with those who disobey Him and disbelieve in Him, and is satisfied with those who obey Him. He loves His Supporters, and hates His Enemies. Love, hatred, consent, and anger are all among the Attributes that are ascribed to Him in a way that befits His Majesty. This is the opinion of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah; we should adhere to this opinion and refute the contrary views. Among the indication on reciting Du`a' during Sujud is the statement of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him): During Ruk'u extol the Great and Glorious Lord, and while prostrating yourselves be earnest in supplication, for it is fitting that your supplications should be answered. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: The nearest a servant comes to his Lord is when he is prostrating himself, so make supplication (in this state). (Related by Muslim in his Sahih (book of authentic Hadith). There is no harm in a woman asking for a righteous husband during Sujud or at the end of the night, or a man asking for a righteous wife or lawful sustenance. Marriage is a form of `Ibadah (worship) that achieves the interest of men and women.
This also applies to all personal needs, such as saying: "O, Allah! Spare me by Your Grace being in need of others"; "O, Allah! Spare me asking the people"; "O, Allah! Grant me blessed offspring", etc.
Fatwas of Ibn Baz
Fatwas of the Permanent Committee